Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English. English also facilitated worldwide international communication.
The distinction between nominative and accusative case was lost except in personal pronouns, the instrumental case was dropped, and the use of the genitive case was limited to describing possession.
First, the waves of Norse colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put Old English into intense contact with Old Norsea North Germanic language.
For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today.
Although, from the beginning, Englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country, … Nevertheless, through intermingling and mixing, first with Danes and then with Normans, amongst many the country language has arisen, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing.
We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings Earlier English did not use the word "do" as a general auxiliary as Modern English does; at first it was only used in question constructions where it was not obligatory.
Its grammar was similar to that of modern Germanand its closest relative is Old Frisian.
Early Modern English Main article: Aroundthe Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documentsand a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standarddeveloped from the dialects of London and the East Midlands.
The Foxes haue holes and the birds of the ayre haue nests  This exemplifies the loss of case and its effects on sentence structure replacement with Subject-Verb-Object word order, and the use of of instead of the non-possessive genitiveand the introduction of loanwords from French ayre and word replacements bird originally meaning "nestling" had replaced OE fugol.
Percentage of English speakers by country. Even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from Modern English: Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs had many more inflectional endings and formsand word order was much freer than in Modern English.
Spread of Modern English By the late 18th century, the British Empire had facilitated the spread of English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance.
However the centre of norsified English seems to have been in the Midlands around Lindseyand after CE when Lindsey was reincorporated into the Anglo-Saxon polity, Norse features spread from there into English varieties that had not been in intense contact with Norse speakers.
The use of progressive forms in -ing, appears to be spreading to new constructions, and forms such as had been being built are becoming more common. It was a chain shiftmeaning that each shift triggered a subsequent shift in the vowel system. Norse influence was strongest in the Northeastern varieties of Old English spoken in the Danelaw area around York, which was the centre of Norse colonisation; today these features are still particularly present in Scots and Northern English.
Some elements of Norse influence that persist in all English varieties today are the pronouns beginning with th- they, them, their which replaced the Anglo-Saxon pronouns with h- hie, him, hera. InWilliam Caxton introduced the printing press to England and began publishing the first printed books in London, expanding the influence of this form of English.
Mid and open vowels were raisedand close vowels were broken into diphthongs. The Great Vowel Shift explains many irregularities in spelling since English retains many spellings from Middle English, and it also explains why English vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages.
In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Old English originated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the coast of the North Sea, whose languages are now known as the Anglo-Frisian subgroup within West Germanic.
As such, the modern Frisian languages are the closest living relatives of Modern English. 1 And there was given me a reed like unto a rod: and the angel stood, saying, Rise, and measure the temple of God, Ezek. and the altar, and them that worship therein.
4 ¶ These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth. Zech. 5 And if any man.Download