According to Horney we can have two views of our self: It contains the natural instincts, thoughts inappropriate desires, irrational motives and painful experiences. A baby given too little or too much opportunity to suck, or made anxious about it may acquire oral fixations, leading to abnormal behaviour like over talkativeness, dependency, chain smoking, etc.
Each stage will experience certain conflicts called crises. Parental attitude towards children, pattern of care like over protection, over indulgence, rejection, negligence, encouragement, discouragement, their attitude towards life, relationship with friends and relatives all will affect the development.
Theory of neurosis[ edit ] Horney looked at neurosis in a different light from other psychoanalysts of the time. Feminine psychology Horney was also a pioneer in the discipline of feminine psychiatry. According to him the traits are the basic units of personality.
Men please this need only through external ways; Horney proposed that the striking accomplishments of men in work or some other field can be viewed as compensation for their inability to give birth to children. Albert Bandura and Walters extended social learning theory into the domain of observational learning.
They are source traits and surface traits.
Each theory is unique and explains personality development and functioning in its own way. Recently, psychologists have attempted to study personality in their own way. She taught at the New York Medical College and continued practicing as a psychiatrist until her death in They will have the personality traits of introverts.
She also founded a journal, named the American Journal of Psychoanalysis. They said that observational learning or imitation generally takes place in a social situation involving a model and an imitator.
Dollard and Miller used animal experiments to test human conflicts and repressions thus advancing social learning theory. She entered psychoanalysis to help her cope. RB Cattell has identified two types of traits. They appear in the form of dreams, or in the form of slip of tongue, slip of pen, automatic writing, amnesia, etc.
Like many who held opposing views with Freud, Horney felt that sex and aggression were not the primary constituents for determining personality. The book asserted that those, both male and female, with relatively minor neurotic problems could, in effect, be their own psychiatrists.
She had a sexual relationship with Fromm that ended bitterly. This classification was made by psychologists who came after Jung. They are comparable with ambiverts. While non-neurotic individuals may strive for these needs, neurotics exhibit a much deeper, more willful and concentrated desire to fulfill the said needs.
Freud believed that because of the diverse nature of these three parts, there will be constant conflicts between one another, which leads to three types of anxiety, viz. The major part of the mind that is unconscious will be like a submerged big part of ice berg. At this time she developed a crush on her older brother, who became embarrassed by her attentions — soon pushing her away.
He called this process as individuation, i. Dietary problems like—semi- starvation, vitamin deficiencies, diseases which are acute as well as chronic—like toxic and bacterial infection due to syphilis, encephalitis or such other diseases cause very severe damage to the personality development and functioning.
The observer himself will not experience rewards or punishments that are imposed on the model, but vicariously experienced them. They are more energetic and aggressive.
She used this threefold typology throughout her subsequent work.Personality Psychology Final Exam. STUDY. PLAY. According to Jung, the _____ personality types tend to be outgoing, pleasure seeking, and adaptable. According to Horney, there are three categories of behaviors and attitudes toward oneself and others that express a person's needs.
Sigmund Freud ‘s psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego.
This “structural theory” of personality places great importance on how conflicts among the parts of the mind shape behavior and personality. "The Development Of The Three Personality Types Identified By Horney" Essays and Research Papers The Development Of The Three Personality Types Identified By Horney Karen Horney is one of the preeminent figures and founders of modern psychoanalysis.
The psychological factors like intelligence level, motives, different interests acquired by the person, attitudes developed, will and character, thinking and reasoning abilities, perceptual ability, emotional development and such other psychological factors also influence the formation, development and organisation of personality.
The three phases of Horney’s development Paris (a: n. p.) outlined three important phases that can be identified in Horney’s work: first, an initial stage in which Horney remained within orthodox Freudian theory.
There is an inventory, the Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator, designed by Frederick Coolidge, Ph.D. to measure Horney’s three types of people. It is a 57 item, three scale inventory, measured on a Likert scale ranging from hardly ever to nearly always fits me.Download